Description of music score

Snow Flower Text supports describing notation by text only. You can start using it without any additional installation. The method of describing score by text is suitable for searching music score and managing change history.Score is generated with vector image, so it will be a clear image with no jaggy on any medium size.

How to use

By writing Music Notation in the [music] block of AsciiDoc, you can embed notation in the document.

music notation

Music Notation

Snow Flower Text supports four types of score score description format. It automatically identifies the format. It is not necessary to specify the format of the notation, especially with [music] alone. For handwriting notation, PAE or Hamdrum in Plain Text format which can describe briefly is recommended.

Supported notation formats
  • Plain Text

    • PAE

    • Hamdrum

  • XML

    • MusicXML

    • MEI

PAE(Plaine & Easie)

Plaine & Easie Code is a library standard that allows you to listen to music with modern notation or musical notation. International Music Library Association and It is maintained and managed by Répertoire International des Sources Musicales (RISM).

For details of PAE syntax, please refer to Plaine & Easie Code.

Plaine & Easie Description example


Humdrum data is an analytic music code for transcribing fully polyphonic textures. Humdrum syntax presents notes of the score in strict time sequence.

For details of Humdrum syntax, please refer to Humdrum’s website.

Humdrum data description example
!!!COM: Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus
!!!OTL: Piano Sonata No. 2 in F major
!!!OMV: 1
!!!SCT1: K1 280
!!!SCT2: K6 189e
!!!OMD: Allegro assai
**kern **kern **dynam
*staff2 *staff1 *staff1/2
*clefF4 *clefG2 *
*k[b-] *k[b-] *
*F: *F: *
*M3/4 *M3/4 *
*MM152 *MM152 *
=1- =1- =1-
4FF 4F 4c: 4f: 4a: 4cc: f
4C 4a/ 4cc/ .
4AA 4a/ 4cc/ .
=2 =2 =2
4FF 4.a/ .
4FFF . .
. (16ddLL .
. 16ccJJ .
4r 16b-LL .
. 16a .
. 16g .
. 16fJJ .
=3 =3 =3
8F 8AL 4ff .
8F 8A . .
8F 8G 8B- 4ee .
8F 8G 8B- . .
8F 8A 8c 4ee-) .
8F 8A 8cJ . .
=4 =4 =4
8F 8B- 8dL 4dd .
8F 8B- 8d . .
8F 8B- 8d 4r .
8F 8B- 8d . .
8F 8B- 8d 4r .
8F 8B- 8dJ . .
=5 =5 =5
8F 8G 8eL (8ccL p
8F 8G 8e 8b-J) .
8F 8G 8e 4b-' .
8F 8G 8e . .
8F 8G 8e 4r .
8F 8G 8eJ . .
=6 =6 =6
*- *- *-


MusicXML is an open file format for notation of XML format. It can be created with many score editing software.Although MusicXML has a large amount of descriptions, it is convenient for cooperating with music score editor that supports MusicXML export.

MusicXML の記述例
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?>
<!DOCTYPE score-partwise PUBLIC
"-//Recordare//DTD MusicXML 3.0 Partwise//EN"

<score-partwise version="3.0">
<score-part id="P1">
<part id="P1">
<measure number="1">


The Music Encoding Initiative (MEI) is an open-source effort to define a system for encoding musical documents in a machine-readable structure. MEI brings together specialists from various music research communities, including technologists, librarians, historians, and theorists in a common effort to define best practices for representing a broad range of musical documents and structures. The results of these discussions are formalized in the MEI schema.

Sample complete score

Etude in F Minor op. 10, no. 9 – Frédéric Chopin