|END(3)||Linux Programmer's Manual||END(3)|
NAMEetext, edata, end - end of program segments
extern etext ;
extern edata ;
extern end ;
DESCRIPTIONThe addresses of these symbols indicate the end of various program segments:
- This is the first address past the end of the text segment (the program code).
- This is the first address past the end of the initialized data segment.
- This is the first address past the end of the uninitialized data segment (also known as the BSS segment).
CONFORMING TOAlthough these symbols have long been provided on most UNIX systems, they are not standardized; use with caution.
NOTESThe program must explicitly declare these symbols; they are not defined in any header file.
EXAMPLEWhen run, the program below produces output such as the following:
First address past:
program text (etext) 0x8048568
initialized data (edata) 0x804a01c
uninitialized data (end) 0x804a024
extern char etext, edata, end; /* The symbols must have some type,
or "gcc -Wall" complains */
main(int argc, char *argv)
printf("First address past:\n");
printf(" program text (etext) %10p\n", &etext);
printf(" initialized data (edata) %10p\n", &edata);
printf(" uninitialized data (end) %10p\n", &end);
SEE ALSOobjdump(1), readelf(1), sbrk(2), elf(5)
COLOPHONThis page is part of release 3.53 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.