MAKEFS(8) FreeBSD System Manager's Manual MAKEFS(8)


makefscreate a file system image from a directory tree or a mtree manifest


makefs [ -DxZ][ -B byte-order][ -b free-blocks][ -d debug-mask][ -F specfile][ -f free-files][ -M minimum-size][ -m maximum-size][ -N userdb-dir][ -o fs-options][ -S sector-size][ -s image-size][ -t fs-type] image-file directory | manifest [ extra-directory ...]


The utility makefs creates a file system image into image-file from the directory tree directory or from the mtree manifest manifest. If optional directory tree extra-directory is passed, then the directory tree of each argument will be merged into the directory or manifest first before creating image-file. No special devices or privileges are required to perform this task.

The options are as follows:

-B byte-order
Set the byte order of the image to byte-order. Valid byte orders are ‘ 4321’, ‘ big’, or ‘ be’ for big endian, and ‘ 1234’, ‘ little’, or ‘ le’ for little endian. Some file systems may have a fixed byte order; in those cases this argument will be ignored.
-b free-blocks
Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the image. An optional ‘ %’ suffix may be provided to indicate that free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.
Treat duplicate paths in an mtree manifest as warnings not error.
-d debug-mask
Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are set in debug-mask. XXX: document these
-F specfile
Use specfile as an mtree(8) ‘specfile’ specification. This option has no effect when the image is created from a mtree manifest rather than a directory.

If a specfile entry exists in the underlying file system, its permissions and modification time will be used unless specifically overridden by the specfile. An error will be raised if the type of entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an existing entry.

In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry in the underlying file system) the following occurs: If the specfile entry is marked optional, the specfile entry is ignored. Otherwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it is necessary to specify at least the following parameters in the specfile: type, mode, gname, or gid, and uname or uid, and link (in the case of symbolic links). If time isn't provided, the current time will be used. If flags isn't provided, the current file flags will be used. Missing regular file entries will be created as zero-length files.

-f free-files
Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in the image. An optional ‘ %’ suffix may be provided to indicate that free-files indicates a percentage of the calculated image size.
-M minimum-size
Set the minimum size of the file system image to minimum-size.
-m maximum-size
Set the maximum size of the file system image to maximum-size. An error will be raised if the target file system needs to be larger than this to accommodate the provided directory tree.
-N dbdir
Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database text file group from dbdir, rather than using the results from the system's getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library calls.
-o fs-options
Set file system specific options. fs-options is a comma separated list of options. Valid file system specific options are detailed below.
Deprecated. See the -Z flag.
-S sector-size
Set the file system sector size to sector-size. Defaults to 512.
-s image-size
Set the size of the file system image to image-size.
-t fs-type
Create an fs-type file system image. The following file system types are supported:
BSD fast file system (default).
ISO 9660 file system.
Exclude file system nodes not explicitly listed in the specfile.
Create the image as a sparse file.

Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected. Two or more numbers may be separated by an “x” to indicate a product. Each number may have one of the following optional suffixes:

Block; multiply by 512
Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB)
Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB)
Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB)
Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB)
Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer

FFS-specific options

ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided. Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equal sign (‘ =’), and a value. The following keywords are supported:

Expected average file size.
Expected number of files per directory.
Block size.
Bytes per inode.
Fragment size.
Label name of the image.
Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group.
Minimum % free.
Optimization preference; one of ‘ space’ or ‘ time’.
Maximum extent size.
Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group.
UFS version. 1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2.

CD9660-specific options

cd9660 images have ISO9660-specific optional parameters that may be provided. The arguments consist of a keyword and, optionally, an equal sign (‘ =’), and a value. The following keywords are supported:

Allow the directory structure to exceed the maximum specified in the spec.
Allow 37 instead of 33 characters for filenames by omitting the version id.
Allow multiple dots in a filename.
Application ID of the image.
Use the ‘ ARCHIMEDES’ extension to encode RISC OS metadata.
Write an MBR partition table to the image to allow older CHRP hardware to boot.
Set load segment for the boot image.
Filename of a boot image in the format “sysid;filename”, where “sysid” is one of ‘ i386’, ‘ mac68k’, ‘ macppc’, or ‘ powerpc’.
Load a generic boot image into the first 32K of the cd9660 image.
Boot image is a hard disk image.
Do not throw away images whose write was aborted due to an error. For debugging purposes.
Label name of the image.
Boot image is not bootable.
Boot image is a “no emulation” ElTorito image.
Do not pad the image (apparently Linux needs the padding).
Preparer ID of the image.
Publisher ID of the image.
Use RockRidge extensions (for longer filenames, etc.).
Volume set identifier of the image.


The makefs utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6.


Luke Mewburn <lukem@NetBSD.org> (original program) Daniel Watt, Walter Deignan, Ryan Gabrys, Alan Perez-Rathke, Ram Vedam (cd9660 support)
August 16, 2013 FreeBSD