TSEARCH(3) FreeBSD Library Functions Manual TSEARCH(3)


tsearch, tfind, tdelete, twalkmanipulate binary search trees


#include < search.h>

void *
tdelete( const void * restrict key, void ** restrict rootp, int (*compar) (const void *, const void *));

void *
tfind( const void *key, void * const *rootp, int (*compar) (const void *, const void *));

void *
tsearch( const void *key, void **rootp, int (*compar) (const void *, const void *));

twalk( const void *root, void (*action) (const void *, VISIT, int));


The tdelete(), tfind(), tsearch(), and twalk() functions manage binary search trees based on algorithms T and D from Knuth (6.2.2). The comparison function passed in by the user has the same style of return values as strcmp(3).

The tfind() function searches for the datum matched by the argument key in the binary tree rooted at rootp, returning a pointer to the datum if it is found and NULL if it is not.

The tsearch() function is identical to tfind() except that if no match is found, key is inserted into the tree and a pointer to it is returned. If rootp points to a NULL value a new binary search tree is created.

The tdelete() function deletes a node from the specified binary search tree and returns a pointer to the parent of the node to be deleted. It takes the same arguments as tfind() and tsearch(). If the node to be deleted is the root of the binary search tree, rootp will be adjusted.

The twalk() function walks the binary search tree rooted in root and calls the function action on each node. The action function is called with three arguments: a pointer to the current node, a value from the enum typedef enum { preorder, postorder, endorder, leaf } VISIT; specifying the traversal type, and a node level (where level zero is the root of the tree).


The tsearch() function returns NULL if allocation of a new node fails (usually due to a lack of free memory).

The tfind(), tsearch(), and tdelete() functions return NULL if rootp is NULL or the datum cannot be found.

The twalk() function returns no value.

June 15, 1997 FreeBSD