CALENDAR(3) FreeBSD Library Functions Manual CALENDAR(3)


easterg, easterog, easteroj, gdate, jdate, ndaysg, ndaysj, week, weekdayCalendar arithmetic for the Christian era


Calendar Arithmetic Library (libcalendar, -lcalendar)


#include < calendar.h>

struct date *
easterg( int year, struct date *dt);

struct date *
easterog( int year, struct date *dt);

struct date *
easteroj( int year, struct date *dt);

struct date *
gdate( int nd, struct date *dt);

struct date *
jdate( int nd, struct date *dt);

ndaysg( struct date *dt);

ndaysj( struct date *dt);

week( int nd, int *year);

weekday( int nd);


These functions provide calendar arithmetic for a large range of years, starting at March 1st, year zero (i.e., 1 B.C.) and ending way beyond year 100000.

Programs should be linked with -lcalendar.

The functions easterg(), easterog() and easteroj() store the date of Easter Sunday into the structure pointed at by dt and return a pointer to this structure. The function easterg() assumes Gregorian Calendar (adopted by most western churches after 1582) and the functions easterog() and easteroj() compute the date of Easter Sunday according to the orthodox rules (Western churches before 1582, Greek and Russian Orthodox Church until today). The result returned by easterog() is the date in Gregorian Calendar, whereas easteroj() returns the date in Julian Calendar.

The functions gdate(), jdate(), ndaysg() and ndaysj() provide conversions between the common "year, month, day" notation of a date and the "number of days" representation, which is better suited for calculations. The days are numbered from March 1st year 1 B.C., starting with zero, so the number of a day gives the number of days since March 1st, year 1 B.C. The conversions work for nonnegative day numbers only.

The gdate() and jdate() functions store the date corresponding to the day number nd into the structure pointed at by dt and return a pointer to this structure.

The ndaysg() and ndaysj() functions return the day number of the date pointed at by dt.

The gdate() and ndaysg() functions assume Gregorian Calendar after October 4, 1582 and Julian Calendar before, whereas jdate() and ndaysj() assume Julian Calendar throughout.

The two calendars differ by the definition of the leap year. The Julian Calendar says every year that is a multiple of four is a leap year. The Gregorian Calendar excludes years that are multiples of 100 and not multiples of 400. This means the years 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100 are not leap years and the year 2000 is a leap year. The new rules were inaugurated on October 4, 1582 by deleting ten days following this date. Most catholic countries adopted the new calendar by the end of the 16th century, whereas others stayed with the Julian Calendar until the 20th century. The United Kingdom and their colonies switched on September 2, 1752. They already had to delete 11 days.

The function week() returns the number of the week which contains the day numbered nd. The argument *year is set with the year that contains (the greater part of) the week. The weeks are numbered per year starting with week 1, which is the first week in a year that includes more than three days of the year. Weeks start on Monday. This function is defined for Gregorian Calendar only.

The function weekday() returns the weekday (Mo = 0 .. Su = 6) of the day numbered nd.

The structure date is defined in < calendar.h>. It contains these fields:

int y;          /∗ year (0000 - ????) ∗/ 
int m;          /∗ month (1 - 12) ∗/ 
int d;          /∗ day of month (1 - 31) ∗/

The year zero is written as "1 B.C." by historians and "0" by astronomers and in this library.


ncal(1), strftime(3)


The week number conforms to ISO 8601: 1988.


The calendar library first appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.


This manual page and the library was written by Wolfgang Helbig <helbig@FreeBSD.org>.


The library was coded with great care so there are no bugs left.
November 29, 1997 FreeBSD